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 MEDICAL

There are various drugs for the treatment of different diseases.

The Liver diseases have been listed down in alphabetical order. Click on the alphabet to read more about the diseases.

 
A
B
 
Caroli Disease Cirrhosis
Cancer of the liver Criggler-Najjar Syndrome Type 1
Criggler-Najjar Syndrome Type2 Contraindications and side-effects of medications
 

 

Caroli Disease

Treatment Indication Dose
Ampicillin Used to treat infections that can develop when a stone from the gallbladder gets trapped in the bile duct.

2 grams by intravenous administration every 4 hours with gentamycin.

Gentamycin Used to treat infections that can develop when a stone from the gallbladder gets trapped in the bile duct. 4-6 mg per kg of body weight by intravenous administration once daily with ampicillin.
Piperacillin-Tazobactam Used to treat infections that can develop when a stone from the gallbladder gets trapped in the bile duct. 4/0.5 grams by intravenous administration every 6 to 8 hours.
Levofloxacin
Used to treat infections that can develop when a stone from the gallbladder gets trapped in the bile duct. 250-500 mg by mouth by mouth or by intravenous administration once daily.
Vitamins This condition can decrease absorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) into the body. A daily multivitamin can help to provide these vitamins. Daily multivitamin pill.
Nonselective Beta-Blockers Drugs like propanonol and nadolol can help prevent bleeding in patients who develop enlarged veins in the esophagus (varices). Dose should be adjusted to achieve a 25% decrement in resting heart rate or a heart rate of 55 to 60 beats per minute.
   



Cancer of the liver

(hepatocellular carcinoma) There are no medications of proven benefit in this condition.

Cirrhosis

Treatment Indication Dose
Nonselective Beta-Blockers Drugs like propanonol and nadolol can help prevent bleeding in patients who develop enlarged veins in the esophagus (varices).

Dose should be adjusted to achieve a 25% decrement in resting heart rate or a heart rate of 55 to 60 beats per minute.

Diuretics Drugs that increase urination such as hydrochlorothiazide can decrease fluid build-up in the belly, which helps prevent an infection in the belly (spontaneous bacterial peritionitis).  
Cefotaxime This is the antibiotic used most commonly to treat infections that develop from fluid build-up in the belly (spontaneous bacterial peritionitis). 2 grams by intravenous administration every 8 hours for 5 or more days.

Albumin Also given to patients who develop infections from fluid build-up in the belly (spontaneous bacterial peritionitis). 1.5 gram per kg of body weight by intravenous administration on day one followed by 1 gram per kg of body weight by intravenous administration on day 3.

Lactulose Helps reduce confusion caused by cirrhosis. 45 – 90 grams by mouth daily titrated to achieve 2-3 soft stools per day.

Midodrine The combination of midodrine with octreotide is indicated in patients who develop kidney disease from cirrhosis (hepatorenal syndrome). 7.5-12.5 mg by mouth three times a day.

Octreotide The combination of midodrine with octreotide is indicated in patients who develop kidney disease from cirrhosis (hepatorenal syndrome). 100-200 mcg by subcutaneous administration three times a day.
   


Criggler-Najjar Syndrome Type 1

Treatment Indication Dose
Calcium Phosphate May reduce bilirubin concentration in the blood when used along with phototherapy. Currently under investigation.



Orlistat Helps reduce bilirubin concentration in the blood when used along with calcium phosphate. Currently under investigation.  
   



Criggler-Najjar Syndrome Type 2

Treatment Indication Dose
Phenobarbital Helps reduce bilirubin concentration in the blood.

60-180 mg per day in divided doses.

Clofibrate Helps reduce bilirubin concentration in the blood. Tends to have fewer side effects than Phenobarbital. 500 mg QID
   

Contraindications and side-effects of medications

Medication Reasons not to take this medicine Side-effects
Ampicillin If you have an allergy to ampicillin, any penicillin, or any other part of this medicine.

- Nausea or vomiting. Small frequent meals, frequent mouth care, sucking hard, sugar-free candy, or chewing sugar-free gum may help.

- Diarrhea. Yogurt may help.

- For females, vaginal yeast infection. Report itching or discharge.

Gentamicin If you have an allergy to gentamicin or any other part of this medicine. - Worsening kidney function.

- Change in hearing can rarely occur.

Piperacillin-Tazobactam If you have an allergy to piperacillin, tazobactam sodium, or any other part of this medicine. - Nausea or vomiting. Small frequent meals, frequent mouth care, sucking hard, sugar-free candy, or chewing sugar-free gum may help.

- Diarrhea. Yogurt may help.

- For females, vaginal yeast infection. Report itching or discharge.

Levofloxacin - Do not give this medicine to a child younger than 18 years of age.

- If you have an allergy to levofloxacin or any other part of this medicine.

- Tell healthcare provider if you are allergic to any medicine. Make sure to tell about the allergy and how it affected you. This includes telling about rash; hives; itching; shortness of breath; wheezing; cough; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat; or any other symptoms involved.

- If you are pregnant or may be pregnant.

- If you are breast-feeding.

Oral:
- Belly pain.

- Nausea or vomiting. Small frequent meals, frequent mouth care, sucking hard, sugar-free candy, or chewing sugar-free gum may help.

-Diarrhea. Yogurt may help.
Tendons can rarely get irritated and tear.

Eye:
- Headache.

- Sore throat.

- Short-term discomfort after use.

- Bright lights may be irritating. Use sunglasses.

- Blurred vision. Use caution when driving or doing other tasks that require you to have clear vision.

Propanolol - If you have an allergy to propanolol or any other part of this medicine.

- If you have any of the following conditions: Severely weakened heart or slow heartbeat without a working pacemaker.

If you are more than 12 weeks pregnant.

- Feeling lightheaded, sleepy, having blurred vision, or a change in thinking clearly. Avoid driving, doing other tasks or activities that require you to be alert or have clear vision until you see how this medicine affects you.

- Feeling dizzy. Rise slowly over several minutes from sitting or lying position. Be careful climbing.

Nadolol - If you have an allergy to nadolol or any other part of this medicine.

- If you have any of the following conditions: Severely weakened heart or slow heartbeat without a working pacemaker.

- If you are more than 12 weeks pregnant.

- Feeling lightheaded, sleepy, having blurred vision, or a change in thinking clearly. Avoid driving, doing other tasks or activities that require you to be alert or have clear vision until you see how this medicine affects you.

- Feeling dizzy. Rise slowly over several minutes from sitting or lying position. Be careful climbing.

- Change in sexual ability or desire. This is usually reversible.

Hydrochlorothiazide - If you have an allergy to hydrochlorothiazide or any other part of this medicine.

- If you have a sulfonamide ("sulfa") allergy, talk with healthcare provider.

- If you have kidney disease.

- Low potassium level. Signs include feeling tired, weak, numbness, or tingling; muscle cramps; constipation; vomiting; or fast heartbeat.

- Feeling dizzy. Rise slowly over several minutes from sitting or lying position. Be careful climbing.

- Nausea or vomiting. Small frequent meals, frequent mouth care, sucking hard, sugar-free candy, or chewing sugar-free gum may help.

- Dry mouth.

Cefotaxime If you have an allergy to cefotaxime or any other part of this medicine. - Nausea or vomiting. Small frequent meals, frequent mouth care, sucking hard, sugar-free candy, or chewing sugar-free gum may help.

- Diarrhea. Yogurt may help.

Lactulose - If you have an allergy to lactulose or any other part of this medicine.

- If you are on a low-galactose or lactose-free diet.

- If you are taking other laxatives.

- Belly pain or heartburn.

- Diarrhea.

Midodrine - If you have an allergy to midodrine or any part of this medicine

- If you have Pheochromocytoma

- If you have severe “high” thyroid disease

- If you have severe heart disease

- High blood pressure in the standing position.

- Goosebumps, itching, rash.

- Difficulty with urination, pain on urination, excessive thirst.

- Numbness and tingling.

- Belly pain
Octreotide If you have an allergy to octreotide or any other part of this medicine. - Slow heartbeat, irregular heartbeat, chest pain, shortness of breath.

- High blood sugar levels, occasionally with enlargement of hands, feet, and head.

- Nausea or vomiting. Small frequent meals, frequent mouth care, sucking hard, sugar-free candy, or chewing sugar-free gum may help.

- Fatigue, headache, dizziness.

- Hair loss

- Belly ache
Orlistat - If you have an allergy to orlistat or any other part of this medicine.

- If you have any of the following conditions: Cholestasis, poor absorption, or poor nutrition.

- If you are pregnant or may be pregnant.

- If you are breast-feeding.


- Headache.

- Belly pain.

- Gas with discharge, oily spotting, and feeling the need to go to the bathroom.

Phenobarbital - If you have an allergy to phenobarbital or any other part of this medicine.

- Tell healthcare provider if you are allergic to any medicine. Make sure to tell about the allergy and how it affected you. This includes telling about rash; hives; itching; shortness of breath; wheezing; cough; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat; or any other symptoms involved.

- If you have any of the following conditions: Blockage in the airway, liver disease, porphyria, or shortness of breath.

- If you are pregnant or may be pregnant.

- If you are breast-feeding.
- Feeling lightheaded, sleepy, having blurred vision, or a change in thinking clearly. Avoid driving, doing other tasks or activities that require you to be alert or have clear vision until you see how this medicine affects you.

- Feeling dizzy. Rise slowly over several minutes from sitting or lying position. Be careful climbing.

Clofibrate - If you have an allergy to clofibrate or any other part of this medicine.

- If you have any of the following conditions: Kidney disease or liver disease.

- Belly pain or heartburn.

- Nausea or vomiting. Small frequent meals, frequent mouth care, sucking hard, sugar-free candy, or chewing sugar-free gum may help.

Acetaminophen (paracetamol) intoxication
Treatment
Indication
Dose
N-Acetylcysteine (1) Patients who have swallowed more than 7.5 grams.

(2) High blood acetaminophen levels in the first four hours after ingesting the pills, or blood levels >10 mcg/kg at any time after ingesting the pills.

(3) Laboratory evidence of liver damage
- 140 mg per kg of body weight by mouth followed by 17 doses of 70 mg per kg of body weight by mouth every 4 hours (total dose 1330 mg/kg).

- Alternative is 150 mg per kg of body weight by intravenous administration given over 15 minutes followed by 50 mg per kg by of body weight by intravenous administration given over 4 hours followed by 100 mg per kg of body weight by intravenous administration given over 16 hours.
   

 

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